How do I convert a file from DOS format to UNIX format (remove CRs from CR-LF line terminators)?
Carriage return characters (CRs) are used in line ending markers on some systems. There are three different kinds of line endings in common use:
- Unix systems use Line Feeds (LFs) only.
- MS-DOS and Windows systems use CR-LF pairs.
- Old Macintosh systems use CRs only.
If you're running a script on a Unix system, the line endings need to be Unix ones (LFs only), or you will have problems.
Testing for line terminator type
A simple check is to simply look at the output of cat -e:
cat -e yourscript
If you see something like this, then you're dealing with CRLF style newlines:
command^M$ ^M$ another command^M$
Another method is to use the file utility to guess at the file type:
The output tells you whether the ASCII text has some CR, if that's the case. Note: this is only true on GNU/Linux. On other operating systems, the result of file is unpredictable, except that it should contain the word "text" somewhere in the output if the result "kind of looks like a text file of some sort, maybe".
imadev:~$ printf 'DOS\r\nline endings\r\n' > foo imadev:~$ file foo foo: commands text arc3:~$ file foo foo: ASCII text, with CRLF line terminators
In a script, it's more difficult to say what the most reliable method should be. Anything you do is going to be a heuristic. In theory a non-corrupt file created by a non-broken UNIX utility should only contain LFs, and by a DOS utility, there should be no bare LFs not preceded by a CR. You can check this with a PCRE.
# Bash / Ksh # [[ $(</dev/fd/0) == ~(P)(?<!$'\r')$'\n' ]] # ksh93 PCRE pattern=*[^$'\r']$'\n'* if [[ $(</dev/fd/0) == $pattern ]] <<<$'foo\r\nbar\r\nbaz\r'; then print 'File contains only CRLFs' else print 'File contains at least one newline not preceded by a CR' fi
ex is a good standard way to convert CRLF to LF, and probably one of the few reasonable methods for doing it in-place from a script:
ex -sc $'%s/\r$//e|x' file
Of course, Any of the more powerful dynamic languages to do this with relative ease.
perl -pi -e 's/\r\n/\n/' filename
Some systems have special conversion tools available to do this automatically. dos2unix, recode, and fromdos` are some examples.
It be done manually with an editor like nano:
nano -w yourscript
Type Ctrl-O and before confirming, type Alt-D (DOS) or Alt-M (Mac) to change the format.
Or in Vim, use :set fileformat=unix and save with :w. Ensure the value of fenc is correct (probably utf-8).
To simply strip all CRs from some input stream, you can use tr -d '\r' <infile >outfile. Of course, you must ensure these are not the same file.